Dentistry is a very broad field and periodontology is just one of the many branches of dental medicine. This area specializes in tooth tissues known as periodontium. Periodontology or periodontics also focus on the structures of the teeth, periodontal diseases, and other related conditions. The periodontium also includes gums or gingiva, alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligaments. Periodontists are professionals in this field and are required to complete a dental degree before applying to post graduate training programs. 
There are many types of periodontal diseases which usually start with the buildup of red complex bacteria within the gingiva and teeth. Gingivitis is the inflammation of gums while periodontitis is an aggravated case associated with several risk factors and can lead to destruction of supporting bones around the teeth or tooth loss. 
Some of the many causes of periodontitis are protruding fillings, improper oral care, plaque, compact teeth and other infections. Laser treatment is a remarkable process which can cure periodontitis. It can heal the affected area through tissue regeneration.